Consider This:

Because China has reduced acceptance of the amount of recyclable plastic and recyclable's in general to less than 20% of United States recyclable's this means that 80% are being stockpiled or being put in our landfills.

This makes it harder for All States, Counties and Cities that are trying to bring down the cost of their Waste (Trash) because of the Human Health and Environmental Issues. Polystyrene/Plastic trash is found in the waterways and in places where it does not belong like the Human Body.

What is your State doing about this? 2 States have passed laws about the Polystyrene/Plastic trash issues and several others have bills that are listed below.

But what is Congress doing about this? In 2011 a Bill was introduced to eliminate Polystyrene Food containers in the House of Representatives cafeterias. This Bill failed in June 2012 by the vote of 178-229.

With the Medical Data below Congress should act in ways that would hold the Polystyrene/Plastic industry and others accountable without taking Healthcare away or holding the Taxpayer accountable by Adding a Healthcare Tax on us.

These Industries (Polystyrene/Plastic) have made Trillions in profits while poisoning the American People and causing the Health epidemics related to their products without being held responsible.

States have already held the Tobacco Companies accountable and now States are starting to hold Opioid Companies accountable for the Health effects of their products. Why should this industry not be held to the same scrutiny?

Again what is Congress doing?! Congress could at least pressure the FDA to protect the Health of the American People. See the FDA section on this page for petitions by Medical Professionals that ask to do just that.

Imagine if all Companies that have products that cause Health conditions had to pay for these Health conditions and it went into a Healthcare Fund. The American People would have Healthcare without having a Healthcare Tax!

I would like to congratulate Maine for being the first State to Ban Polystyrene.

And although Maine was the first State to pass a Polystyrene Law, Maryland passed their Law with a veto proof vote and it went into effect in July 2019 where Maine's Law goes into effect in January 2021. Kudos to both for their bold move to protect their citizens.

Hawaii and 13 other States have Polystyrene Bills: California, Connecticut, Massachusetts, Michigan, Montana, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New York, Oregon, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, Vermont and Virginia.

After reviewing the information below my Assemblyman has asked the sponsor of the NY Bill to add the Health effects of Autism and Diabetes. There has been NO response.

Greene County New York has written a Resolution Urging New York State To Implement a State Wide Ban on Polystyrene on 6/5/2019.

Autism and Diabetes are TWO of the main reasons WHY People do not Immunize their children. Many parents do not realize the affects are not from the vaccines but from other enviromentally pervasive chemicals, such as styrene.

This is a way of dealing with your trash and in time bringing down the cost of Healthcare in your State, County or City by eliminating Polystyrene (Styrene)/ Plastic Packaging because of the Health concerns. Eliminating Chemicals from the Food Supply that cause Quality of Life Issues putting the Health Care System and all People in Jeopardy.

So, the two most important reasons to eliminate Polystyrene(Styrene)/ Plastic Packaging from our Food Supply:

    1. The cost of Healthcare cause by Polystyrene (Styrene)/Plastic. As Stated in the 2011 Bill to Congress.

    2. The lack of oversight by the FDA and other Agencies causing Quality of Life Issues.

I have divided this document into sections to show the many ways that Polystyrene (Styrene)/ Plastic affects our lives. I hope you are willing to Improve the Quality of Life of the People in your area (State, County or City).

Please Keep in mind the ways Styrene causes Human Health Issues:

    1. Styrene and other Chemicals that leaches out of the Polystyrene / Plastic causes Human Health Issues

    2. Styrene and other Chemicals Added to Food taken Orally causes Human Health Issues

    3. Styrene and other Chemicals Emitted in the Air we Breathe causes Human Health Issues

    4. Combined Styrene and other Chemicals cost to your State, County or City and the People are Billions of Dollars if not more every Year.

If our government, whether it be Local, City, County, State or Federal (Congress), were interested in Health Care of the people they represent they would eliminate the Food packaging and Chemicals Added to our Food that Cause many of the Life-long Health Epidemics to bring down the cost of Health Care and promote a healthier population

In fact looking at the Credible Medical Research links below it is showen the more we learn about the many (7) kinds of Plastic the more we find that Plastic is much more toxic than the Plastic industry has promoted it to be.

So the big question is, is any Plastic that our Food or Drink is contained in SAFE?

Consider Statistics of Diabetes, Depression and Autism in connection to Polystyrene (Styrene)/ Plastic coming in contact with our Food Supply and the Health Concerns.

Toxicity of Plastic

Although Bisphenol A or as it is known, BPA, has been taken out of some plastics yet it is still used in our food containers.

What is BPA?: BPA is a manmade industrial chemical that has been used to make certain plastics and resins since the 1960s. It's a key building block in polycarbonate (no. 7) plastic, which is used to make a wide variety of products: water and juice bottles, food containers, CDs, DVDs, eyeglass lenses, and more. It's used in the lining of food and soda cans to prevent the contents from corroding the metal. BPA also serves as a "developer" in thermal paper receipts. These receipts aren't actually printed with ink; they're coated with chemicals that react to heat and change color to create the appearance of printed type.

Adverse Health Effects of Plastics _ Ecology Center.pdf

What numbers of plastic are safe for water bottles.pdf

2008 The plastic world Sources amounts.pdf

2017 Food safety and public health the paradox of bisphenol A.pdf

2018 Toxic effects of plastic on human health.pdf

Child Data

This information includes Autism. This Medical Data starts in the year 2000 and is ongoing.

2000 Chemicals in the Environment and Developmental Toxicity to Children:  A Public Health and Policy Perspective. Johns Hopkins University Pub.

2000 Vulnerability of Children and the Developing Brain to Neurotoxic Hazards  Department of Environmental Medicine, University of Rochester School of Medicine and Dentistry, Rochester, New York, USA

2001 Mood disorders in children and adolescents: an epidemiologic perspective.  PubMed

2005 Children’s Exposure to Volatile Organic Compounds as Determined by Longitudinal Measurements in Blood.  University of Texas School of Public Health, Brownsville Regional Campus, Brownsville, Texas, USA; Division of Environmental Health Sciences, School of Public Health, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota, USA; Division of Laboratory Sciences, National Center for Environmental Health, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia, USA

2006 A Silent Pandemic Industrial Chemicals Are Impairing the Brain Development of Children.   Worldwide - November 07, 2006 -2006 Releases - Press Releases - Harvard School of Public Health

2006 Developmental neurotoxicity of industrial chemicals   Institute of Public Health, University of Southern Denmark, Odense, Denmark (Prof P Grandjean MD); Department of Environmental Health, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, MA, USA (P Grandjean); Department of Community Medicine (Prof PJ Landrigan MD); and Department of Pediatrics, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, New York, NY, USA

2010 Childhood cancer survivors may face shortened lifespan, study reveals _ News _ Harvard T.H.pdf

2013 Perinatal Air Pollutant Exposures and Autism Spectrum Disorder in the Children of Nurses’ Health Study II Participants  Department of Social and Behavioral Sciences; Department of Nutrition, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, Massachusetts, USA; University of California, MIND Institute, Davis, California, USA; Channing Division of Network Medicine, Brigham and Women’s Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts, USA; Department of Environmental Health, 6Department of Epidemiology, Department of Biostatistics, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, Massachusetts, USA; Department of Epidemiology, Mailman School of Public Health, Columbia University, New York, New York, USA

Mutation Definition   This page explains how Chemicals Mutate Human DNA which is talked about in the above Medical Study.

2013 Traffic-Related Air Pollution, Particulate Matter, and Autism   Heather E. Volk, PhD, MPH; Fred Lurmann; Bryan Penfold; et alIrva Hertz-Picciotto, PhD; Rob McConnell, MD

2014 Neurobehavioural impacts of developmental toxicity  Department of Environmental Medicine, University of Southern Denmark, Odense, Denmark, and Department of Environmental Health, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, MA, USA (P Grandjean, MD) and Department of Preventive Medicine, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, New York, NY; USA (PJ Landrigan, MD)

2018 American Academy of Pediatrics Says Some Common Food Additives May Pose Health Risks to Children   This shows that not only food additives pose health risks but also Plastics with Styrene (listed by name in the report) should be Avoided.

Dangers of Bisphenol A (BPA) and Plastics  Get the Facts: Recycling Codes and good information on the different classes of plastic.

Types of Plastic and Their Recycle Codes   Quality Logo Products. This article shows the Recycling Codes in a different way and also has good information on the different classes of plastic.

Diabetes

This Medical Data starts in the year 1979 and is ongoing. These studies directly link Styrene to Diabetes.

1979 Tissue distribution and excretion of 14c-styrene.   Data shows relationship on how workers are affected by exposure to styrene.

2017 Effect of styrene exposure on plasma parameters, molecular mechanisms and gene expression in rat model islet cells.   PubMed

2015 Diabetes epidemic American Diabetes Association   Diabetes and prediabetes cost an estimated $245 billion Dollars in United States in the year 2012.

2015 American Diabetes Association  This approximates about how much Diabetes cost every State in the United States in 2015 and the cost keeps risen every year. In 2018 the CDC states that 1 in every 3 Americans has Pre-diabetes or has Diabetes. All States are Listed.

Screening and Identification of Children and Adolescents at Risk for Depression During a Diabetes Clinic Visit   Maureen Monaghan, PhD, Chandra Singh, BS, Randi Streisand, PhD CDE, and Fran R. Cogen, MD, CDE

Depression

Depression is one of the reasons people Self Medicate which is part of the Drug Problem we have today with the opioids crisis.

1980 Effect Of Styrene On Levels Of Serotonin, Noradrenaline, Dopamine And Activity Of Acetyl Cholinesterase And Monoamine Oxidase In Rat Brain   Researched By Raushan Husain, Satya Prakash Srivastava, Mohammad Mushtaq And Prahlab Kishore Seth

The EPA: 1980 Chromosomal aberrations and sister-chromatid exchanges in lymphocytes of men occupationally exposed to styrene.

1993 Developmental Effects of Endocrine-Disrupting Chemicals in Wildlife and Humans   W. Alton Jones Foundation and World Wildlife Fund, Washington, DC, 20037 USA; Division of Biological Sciences and John M. Dalton Research Center, University of Missouri, Columbia, MO 65211 USA; Department of Anatomy and Cellular Biology, Tufts University, Boston, MA 02111 USA

Medical Definition of Peripheral Nervous System  By Web MD   This page explains the Peripheral Nervous System because it was talked about in the above Medical Study.

2018 Depression (major depressive disorder) - Symptoms and causes   Mayo Clinic  All symptoms that correlate with Symptoms caused by Styrene are highlighted.

Breast Cancer

These links to Medical Data show how Styrene and Plastic is relevant to the cause Breast Cancer.

Exposure to Chemicals in Plastic.pdf   This report is put out by breastcancer.org

An update on the connection between breast cancer and the environment.pdf

Low‐Dose Bisphenol A Exposure: A Seemingly Instigating Carcinogenic Effect on Breast Cancer.pdf

New Exposure Biomarkers as Tools for Breast Cancer Epidemiology.pdf

Breast Cancer and Environment _ Breast Cancer Action.pdf

Major decision on lead poisoning by NY's highest court.pdf

Thyroid

These links to Medical Data show how Styrene and Plastic affects the Thyroid.

2009 Environmental chemicals and thyroid function.pdf

2012 Thyroid Disrupting Chemicals in Plastic.pdf

2019 Role of Emerging Environmental Risk Factors in Thyroid Cancer.pdf

How Environmental Toxins Harm the Thyroid _ Kresser Institute.pdf

Reproduction

These links to Medical Data show how Styrene and Plastic affects Reproduction

2006 Styrene Monograph.pdf

2007-2013 Bisphenol A and Reproductive Health Update.pdf

2014 Adverse Effects of Bisphenol A on Male Reproduction.pdf

2016 Effects of Bisphenol-A and Styrene on Fertilization and Developmet.pdf

2017 Bisphenol Compounds on Human Reproduction.pdf

2017 Review on crosstalk and common mechanism of endocrine disruptors.pdf

Microplastics

This is considered a fairly new field of research but in earlier studies it was found that when Styrene is taken orally or inhaled it causes Human Health issues as stated in the reports above.

1998 Inhaled cellulosic and plastic fibers found in human lung tissue.  PubMed

2001 Size-dependent proinflammatory effects of ultrafine polystyrene particles  PubMed

2017 Plastic and Human Health: A Micro Issue? PubMed

2018 WHO launches health review after microplastics found in 90% of bottled water  The Guardian
This is alarming because microplastics were found in tap water. What is more alarming is that they do not state what kind of plastic it is; is it codes 3 (phthalates), 6 (styrene), and 7 (bisphenols) that The American Academy of Pediatrics are telling us to avoid because of Health concerns?

2018 Are Microplastics in Food a Threat to Your Health?  Written by Ruairi Robertson, PhD   This is a website with links that shows the research that has been done mostly from PubMed.

Volatile Organic Compound or VOCs

Styrene is also considered a Volatile Organic Compound. VOCs are a class of chemicals that are volatile (evaporate easily) and are organic compounds (contain carbon atoms).

ATSDR - Chemical Class - Volatile organic compounds  This is ATSDR list of VOC's

PVC Flooring & Toxic Cleaning Products in Schools   This report shows that one floor waxing put out as much VOC's as the lifetime of the floor tile.

ChildrenExposureVOC   University of Texas School of Public Health, Brownsville Regional Campus, Brownsville, Texas, USA; Division of Environmental Health Sciences, School of Public Health, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota, USA; Division of Laboratory Sciences, National Center for Environmental Health, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia, USA

VOCs in carpet and carpet pads - Appropedia_ The sustainability wiki   Shows that Styrene leaches out of your carpet into the Air you Breath.

The Federal Government has not kept up to date with Credible Medical Research. This is why States have to ACT!

The next Section will look at why The Federal Government has not acted or accepted this Credible Medical Research. This does not mean that The Federal Government has lied to the American Public it shows you that they were grossly mislead about Medical Research Facts.

Fact Sheets

1994 Styrene Fact Sheet EPA  This report verifys that Styrene does NOT Occur Naturally.

A graphic explaining where Styrene comes from.

2010 ATSDR_POTENTIAL FOR HUMAN EXPOSURE  On page 15 of study it States:

"Styrene may enter packaged foods by migration from polystyrene food containers and packaging materials, with concentrations ranging from <100 to >3,000 ppm, but common levels being much lower (5–30 ppb) (EPA 1985a; Tang et al. 2000)."

Yet the Styrene exposure limits for workers was 100 ppm in the 1980's and 50 ppm in the 1990's. So 100 to >3,000 ppm is much more than was allowed even at the 1980's exposure limits. Since 2012 the exposure limits are 20 ppm and the government is trying to lower the exposure limits to 2ppm for workers.

This clearly shows an exposure rate 5 to 150 times more that what is safe for an adult worker daily. This in ONE Meal, this proves an extreme Health Hazard.

Consider how many times you eat a meal packaged in Polystyrene daily? (This means a container with a Recycling Code #6).

More importantly how many times do your Children eat a meal that was packaged in Polystyrene / Plastic daily?

On page 16 in Table 6-3. Styrene Levels in Food Items: Most of the foods are processed and we know the FDA has been directly and indirectly flavoring food with Styrene and other Chemicals. This could explain the levels of Styrene and other Chemicals in these foods.

As for the rest of the foods (fruits, vegetables and meats) the Styrene in the air from the exhaust from tobacco, cars, trucks, Power plants home heating and other sources are feeding the plants. The fruits, vegetables and meats store the Styrene in their fats the same way Humans do.

2011 Health Effects and Regulation of Styrene (CASRN 100-42-5)   Clean Water Action California This fact sheet shows, According to the US EPA, 100% of Americans have styrene in their bodies.

2012 Styrene Public Health Statement Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry.  This Government Agency Biggest Misleading Statement is it Tells the Public that there is no Medical Research that Shows Styrene is Harmful to Children. This Agency Does the Research for the CDC! Is this why there is so many children with Leukemia, Autism and Diabetes in the United States?!

2016 Search Results for Styrene and EPA Click on https://www.epa.gov/sites/production/files/2016-09/documents/styrene.pdf  You might think you would be seeing a 2016 Hazard Summary on Styrene. But the Hazard Summary was created in April 1992, updated in January 2000. Is this the EPA's way of up-dating their toxic Chemicals?

2016 styrene EPA created in April 1992, updated in January 2000 and used as the 2016 up-Date.

2017 Safety and Health Topics  Styrene Occupational Safety and Health Administration  This also agrees that Styrene Does NOT Occur Naturally.

FDA

The FDA has taken over 3 Years to make a decision that was only suppose to take 180 Days according to Title 21 - FOOD AND DRUGS _CHAPTER 9. To eliminate Styrene as a synthetic flavoring substance and adjuvant.

2015 Petition FDA hea15060901a This is the Petition Filed by Several Medical Groups for the FDA to remove 8 Chemicals from the food additive list; one of these chemicals is Styrene.

  2016 FDA Styrene 14107 This is the Petition Filled by Styrene Information and Research Center (Styrene Lobby) to remove the chemical Styrene.

2018 Advocates Sue FDA to Force Decision on Cancer-Causing Chemicals in Popular Foods  Earthjustice

2018 EDF and others take FDA to court to demand action on carcinogenic flavors petition   Environmental Defense Fund

2018 Food Additive and Color Additive Petitions Under Review or Held in Abeyance   FDA Website That shows this has been Under Review since September 2015.

2018 Food Additive and Color Additive Petitions Under Review or Held in Abeyance - update   FDA Website Further information that shows that there are many other Petitions being Held Under Review.

2018-05-02_Flavors_Mandamus  This Law Suite was Filed because of non-action on the part of the FDA. It is my guess; because the FDA allowed Styrene in our food supply in so many ways the FDA does not Know how to take Styrene out of the Food Supply.

Binder 3 Styrene Food Add 2014  FDA Website   This report shows 3 Pages of how the FDA allowed Styrene to be put Directly into Food as an Additive.

Binder 4 List of Indirect Styrene Additives Used in Food 2014  13 Pages of how the FDA allowed Styrene to be put Indirectly into Food.

CDC and HHS

2015 CDC Press Release  This Press release states that 1 in every 5 Americans has a Disability. How long can Americans or America last if it becomes 1 in 3? In 2018 the CDC states that 1 in every 3 Americans has Pre-diabetes or has Diabetes. This is a Disability!

2018 Strategic Goal 2 HHS.gov

The way some of this is written It seems like the U.S. Department of Health & Human Services is putting the Blame on the American People for having multiple chronic conditions at the same time.

The HHS should get their house in order and get after the FDA, CDC, EPA and the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry to work with Medical Research Professionals instead of Lobbyist that are only interested in making money for their companies and not caring how the product effects the American Public.

Styrene Industry

Styrene Information and Research Center or (SIRC) Membership represents approximately 95% of the North American Styrene industry this makes them the Styrene Lobby. Their own documentation will show you that SIRC puts their product (Styrene) before the American Public's Health!

2008 26-08 SIRC statement to IRIS   This shows that the EPA classification for styrene’s cancer-causing potential should have been finalized in 2010. The 12th Report on Carcinogens (RoC) finalized and released in June 2011.

2010 15-10-moa-briefing-paper This is SIRC's Styrene’s Mode of Action Documentation to underwrite deliberations on styrene with the EPA and other Government Agencies to limit the regulatory actions on Styrene.

2011 03-23-statement-house-petition-on-cups SIRC mislead Congress in this letter (and by Cherry picking the information they gave to Congress) SIRC did not list the 5 Credible Medical Research Documents Dated from 2000 to 2006 which shows Styrene, which is a Solvent, is a health concern. There are many Government Agencies like the CDC, ADSTR, EPA and IRIS that also said Styrene was and is a health concern before 2011. Yet, They still do not Protect our Children!

2011 06-16 Levy Declaration1 This is where Michael Levy of SIRC puts the limitations of regulatory actions of Styrene ahead of the Health of the American People. In this Document he stated " In fact, this is what happened during a similar listing issue in Japan". This is about the 12th Report on Carcinogens (RoC).

2011 08-30 Government response The government is defending its case on 12th Report on Carcinogens (RoC) against SIRC's allegations.

2011 28-11 Judge cancels December 1 hearing  The Judge dismiss the case SIRC had against the Government. How much Money Did it Cost the Taxpayers?

2017 Comments of the Styrene Information and Research Center on Risk Evaluation Proposed Rule under TSCA 03  Reading this is like a Bully trying to get their own way which is what SIRC is trying to do to the EPA HERE.

2018 SIRC comments to ACGIH 053118-combined   SIRC shows here that they oppose the Governments lowering the exposure recommendations from 20ppm to 2ppm (Parts PER Million). Again SIRC is putting Styrene and the Money they make from it ahead of Human Health.

2012 Styrene Industry Stewardship This shows that Styrene exposure limits have been lowered several times in the Past. In the 1980's the exposure limits were 100ppm, In the 1990's the exposure limits were cut to 50ppm, In 2012 the exposure limits were cut to 20ppm and Now the Government wants to cut the exposure limits to 2ppm.

2014 Styrene Value Chain_FINAL_JULY   I believe this makes a sufficient Point. If Styrene is Natural Then WHY not use Natural Styrene to Flavor FOOD and WHY is Styrene called a synthetic flavoring substance. This also shows that Styrene is made from ethylbenzene.

T_Expert Science Reviews   This is SIRC Cherry Picking again but, now they are trying to convince the American People and People around the world that Styrene is Safe. If Styrene is safe why not list the Credible Medical Research Documents Dated from 2000 to Date which shows Styrene is a health concern especially to Children. Most importantly why did SIRC submit their Petition requesting that the FDA amend Styrene as a additive to no longer provide for the use of a synthetic flavoring substance and adjuvant in food.

In Conclusion:

These reports shows that SIRC has been aggressively inserting themselves into Government rulings. SIRC has been doing this by only using data that shows Styrene being less of a Human Health Concern then what Credible Medical Research Documents show.

SIRC has used a Harvard School of Public Health report in 2002 but never mentions any of the 2006, 2013 or any other Documents from Harvard School of Public Health that show Styrene is a Health Concern.

Our Government has held the Tobacco Industry accountable and Styrene is only one Chemical in the Tobacco Smoke. Our Government states a person has to be over 18 years of age before they can buy Tobacco products. Yet, Our Government supplies This Harmful Chemical Styrene aimed at our Children in their food and food containers.

Does this make sense to you?

SIRC and the Styrene Industry should be held responsible for the Human Health Epidemics that is caused by Styrene (Polystyrene). Some of the Epidemics directly connected to Styrene are Autism, Diabetes and Depression which cause other Health Concerns that are epidemics them self's.

If our Government can hold the Tobacco Industry accountable to Pay for advertising the Health Risk of Tobacco Products and Pay into Medicaid and Medicare for Health Care, WHY, can't Our Government hold SIRC and the Styrene Industry accountable to Pay for the Epidemics that are caused by their product the Chemical Styrene?

If our Government made SIRC and the Styrene Industry accountable to Pay into Medicare, Medicaid and other Insurance Institutes or Companies for the Epidemics Styrene Caused it would bring the COST of Healthcare Down for everyone.

Thank you for your time.

Charles Lake

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