Most States, Counties and Cities are trying to bring down the cost of their Waste (Trash) because of the Environmental Issues. Polystyrene/Plastic trash in the waterways and in places where it does not belong.

Hawaii's Law on Polystyrene goes into effect in 2020. There are 14 other States with Polystyrene Bills California, Connecticut, Maine, Maryland, Massachusetts, Michigan, Montana, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New York, Oregon, Rhode Island, Vermont and Virginia.

After reviewing the information below my Assemblyman has asked the sponsor of the NY Bill to add the Health effects of Autism and Diabetes.

Autism and Diabetes are TWO of the main reasons WHY People do not Immunize their children. Many parents do not realize the affects are not from the vaccines but from other enviromentally pervasive chemicals, such as styrene.

This is a way of dealing with your trash and in time bringing down the cost of Healthcare in your State, County or City by eliminating Polystyrene Packaging because of the Health concerns. Eliminating Chemicals from the Food Supply that cause Quality of Life Issues putting the Health Care System and People in Jeopardy.

So, the two most important reasons to eliminate Polystyrene Packaging /Styrene from our Food Supply.

    1. The cost of Healthcare cause by Polystyrene/Styrene.

    2. The lack of oversight by the FDA and other Agencies causing Quality of Life Issues.

I have divided this document into sections to show the several ways that Styrene affects our lives. I hope you are willing to Improve the Quality of Life of the People in your area (State, County or City).

Please Keep in mind of the ways Styrene causes Human Health Issues:

    1. Styrene that leaches out of the Polystyrene causes Human Health Issues

    2. Styrene Added to Food taken Orally causes Human Health Issues

    3. Styrene Admitted in the Air we Breathe causes Human Health Issues

    4. Combined Styrene cost to your State, County or City and the People are Billions of Dollars if not more every Year.

Let's look at why Polystyrene Food Containers should be Ban in State, County or City with Credible Medical Evidence.

The First Section that we will look at is Child Data.

This includes Autism. This Medical Data starts in the year 2000 and is ongoing to present by the American Academy of Pediatrics in 7/23/2018 with Credible Medical Evidence.

2000 Chemicals in the Environment and Developmental Toxicity to Children: A Public Health and Policy Perspective Johns Hopkins University Pub.

2000 Vulnerability of Children and the Developing Brain to Neurotoxic Hazards Department of Environmental Medicine, University of Rochester School of Medicine and Dentistry, Rochester, New York, USA

2001 Mood disorders in children and adolescents: an epidemiologic perspective. PubMed

2005 Children’s Exposure to Volatile Organic Compounds as Determined by Longitudinal Measurements in Blood 1University of Texas School of Public Health, Brownsville Regional Campus, Brownsville, Texas, USA; 2Division of Environmental Health Sciences, School of Public Health, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota, USA; 3Division of Laboratory Sciences, National Center for Environmental Health, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia, USA

2006 A Silent Pandemic Industrial Chemicals Are Impairing the Brain Development of Children Worldwide - November 07, 2006 -2006 Releases - Press Releases - Harvard School of Public Health

2006 Developmental neurotoxicity of industrial chemicals Institute of Public Health, University of Southern Denmark, Odense, Denmark (Prof P Grandjean MD); Department of Environmental Health, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, MA, USA (P Grandjean); Department of Community Medicine (Prof PJ Landrigan MD); and Department of Pediatrics, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, New York, NY, USA

2010_Childhood cancer survivors may face shortened lifespan, study reveals _ News _ Harvard T.H.pdf This shows that Childhood cancer survivors may face shortened lifespan. Styrene is linked to Cancer and workers have had Cancer primarily Leukemia.

2013 Perinatal Air Pollutant Exposures and Autism Spectrum Disorder in the Children of Nurses’ Health Study II Participants 1Department of Social and Behavioral Sciences, and 2Department of Nutrition, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, Massachusetts, USA; 3University of California, MIND Institute, Davis, California, USA; 4Channing Division of Network Medicine, Brigham and Women’s Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts, USA; 5Department of Environmental Health, 6Department of Epidemiology, and 7Department of Biostatistics, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, Massachusetts, USA; 8Department of Epidemiology, Mailman School of Public Health, Columbia University, New York, New York, USA

Mutation Definition This page explains how Chemicals Mutate Human DNA which is talked about in the last Medical Study.

2013 Traffic-Related Air Pollution, Particulate Matter, and Autism Heather E. Volk, PhD, MPH; Fred Lurmann; Bryan Penfold; et alIrva Hertz-Picciotto, PhD; Rob McConnell, MD

2014 Neurobehavioural impacts of developmental toxicity Department of Environmental Medicine, University of Southern Denmark, Odense, Denmark, and Department of Environmental Health, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, MA, USA (P Grandjean, MD) and Department of Preventive Medicine, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, New York, NY; USA (PJ Landrigan, MD)

2018 American Academy of Pediatrics Says Some Common Food Additives May Pose Health Risks to Children This shows that not only food additives pose health risks Plastics with Styrene (listed by name) should be Avoided.

Dangers of Bisphenol A (BPA) and Plastics Get the Facts This shows the Recycling Codes and has good information on the different classes of plastic.

Types of Plastic and Their Recycle Codes Quality Logo Products This shows the Recycling Codes in a different way and has good information on the different classes of plastic.

Diabetes

This Medical Data starts in the year 1979 and is ongoing which directly links Styrene to Diabetes.

1979 Tissue distribution and excretion of 14c-styrene in male and female rats. This shows how workers were affected.

2017 Effect of styrene exposure on plasma parameters, molecular mechanisms and gene expression in rat model islet cells. PubMed

2015 Diabetes epidemic American Diabetes Association

Diabetes and prediabetes cost an estimated $245 billion Dollars in United States in the year 2012.

2015 American Diabetes Association

This approximates about how much Diabetes cost every State in the United States in 2015 and the cost keeps risen every year.

In 2018 the CDC states that 1 in every 3 Americans has Pre-diabetes or has Diabetes. All States Listed.

Screening and Identification of Children and Adolescents at Risk for Depression During a Diabetes Clinic Visit Maureen Monaghan, PhD, Chandra Singh, BS, Randi Streisand, PhD CDE, and Fran R. Cogen, MD, CDE This leads us to the Section.

Depression

Depression is one of the reasons People self Medicate which is part of the Drug Problem we have today with opioids crisis.

1980 EFFECT OF STYRENE ON LEVELS OF SEROTONIN, NORADRENALINE, DOPAMINE AND ACTIVITY OF ACETYL CHOLINESTERASE AND MONOAMINE OXIDASE IN RAT BRAIN researched by RAUSHAN HUSAIN, SATYA PRAKASH SRIVASTAVA, MOHAMMAD MUSHTAQ and PRAHLAb KISHORE SETH

1980 Chromosomal aberrations and sister-chromatid exchanges in lymphocytes of men occupationally exposed to styrene The EPA

1993 Developmental Effects of Endocrine-Disrupting Chemicals in Wildlife and Humans 1W. Alton Jones Foundation and World Wildlife Fund, Washington, DC, 20037 USA; 2Division of Biological Sciences and John M. Dalton Research Center, University of Missouri, Columbia, MO 65211 USA; 3Department of Anatomy and Cellular Biology, Tufts University, Boston, MA 02111 USA

Medical Definition of Peripheral Nervous System By Web MD This page explains the Peripheral Nervous System because it was talked about in the last Medical Study.

2018 Depression (major depressive disorder) - Symptoms and causes - Mayo Clinic All symptoms that correlate with Symptoms caused by Styrene are highlighted.

Microplastics

This is considered a fairly new field of research but in earlier studies it was found that when Styrene is taken orally or inhaled it causes Human Health issues as you have just read about.

1998 Inhaled cellulosic and plastic fibers found in human lung tissue. PubMed

2001 Size-dependent proinflammatory effects of ultrafine polystyrene particles: a role for surface area and oxidative stress in the enhanced activity of ultrafines. PubMed

2017 Plastic and Human Health: A Micro Issue? PubMed

2018 WHO launches health review after microplastics found in 90% of bottled water The Guardian This is alarming because of the fact that microplastics were found in tap water. What is more alarming is that they do not state what kind of plastic it is; is it codes 3 (phthalates), 6 (styrene), and 7 (bisphenols) that The American Academy of Pediatrics are telling us to avoid because of Health concerns.

2018 Are Microplastics in Food a Threat to Your Health? Written by Ruairi Robertson, PhD This is a website with links that shows the research that has been done mostly from PubMed.

Breast Cancer

This shows how Styrene is linked to Breast Cancer.

New Exposure Biomarkers as Tools for Breast Cancer Epidemiology 1Silent Spring Institute, Newton, Massachusetts, USA; 2Harvard School of Public Health, Harvard University, Boston, Massachusetts, USA

Major decision on lead poisoning by NY's highest court

Volatile Organic Compound or VOCs

Styrene is also considered a Volatile Organic Compound. VOCs are a class of chemicals that are volatile (evaporate easily) and are organic compounds (contain carbon atoms).

ATSDR - Chemical Class - Volatile organic compounds This is ATSDR list of VOC's

PVC Flooring & Toxic Cleaning Products in Schools This shows that one floor waxing put out as much VOC's as the lifetime of the floor tile.

ChildrenExposureVOC 1University of Texas School of Public Health, Brownsville Regional Campus, Brownsville, Texas, USA; 2Division of Environmental Health Sciences, School of Public Health, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota, USA; 3Division of Laboratory Sciences, National Center for Environmental Health, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia, USA

VOCs in carpet and carpet pads - Appropedia_ The sustainability wiki Shows that Styrene leaches out of your carpet into the Air you Breath.

The Federal Government has not kept up to date with Credible Medical Research. This is why States have to ACT!

In the next Section we will look at why The Federal Government has not acted or excepted this Credible Medical Research. This does not mean that The Federal Government has lied to the American Public it shows you that they were grossly mislead about Medical Research Facts.

Fact Sheets

1994 Styrene Fact Sheet EPA This shows that Styrene is NOT Occur Naturally and is the same as Dutchess County in 2017.

2010 ATSDR_POTENTIAL FOR HUMAN EXPOSURE

On page 15 of it States: "Styrene may enter packaged foods by migration from polystyrene food containers and packaging materials, with concentrations ranging from <100 to >3,000 ppm, but common levels being much lower (5–30 ppb) (EPA 1985a; Tang et al. 2000)." Yet the Styrene exposure limits for workers was 100 ppm in the 1980's, 50 ppm in the 1990's. So 100 to >3,000 ppm is much more then or even at the 1980's exposure limits. Since 2012 the exposure limits are 20 ppm and the government is trying to lower the exposure limits to 2ppm for workers.

This shows clearly an exposure rate 5 to 150 times more that what is safe for an adult worker daily in ONE Meal this proves an extreme Health Hazard.

How many times do you eat a meal that was packaged in Polystyrene daily? (This means a container with a Recycling Code #6).

More importantly how many times do your Children eat a meal that was packaged in Polystyrene daily?

On page 16 in Table 6-3. Styrene Levels in Food Items Most of the foods are processed and we know the FDA has been directly and indirectly flavoring food with Styrene. This could explain the levels of Styrene in these foods.

As for the rest of the foods (fruits, vegetables and meats) the Styrene in the air from the exhaust from tobacco, cars, trucks, Power plants home heating and other sources are feeding the plants. The fruits, vegetables and meats store the Styrene in their fats the same way Humans do.

2011 Health Effects and Regulation of Styrene (CASRN 100-42-5) Clean Water Action California This shows According to the US EPA, 100% of Americans have styrene in their bodies.

2012 Styrene Public Health Statement Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry This Government Agency Biggest Misleading Statement is it Tells the Public that there is no Medical Research that Shows Styrene is Harmful to Children. This Agency Does the Research for the CDC! Is this why there is so many children with Leukemia, Autism and Diabetes in the United States!

2016 Search Results for Styrene and EPA When you click on https://www.epa.gov/sites/production/files/2016-09/documents/styrene.pdf You would think you would be seeing a 2016 Hazard Summary on Styrene. But the Hazard Summary was created in April 1992, updated in January 2000. Is this the EPA's way of up-dating their toxic Chemicals?

2016 styrene EPA created in April 1992, updated in January 2000 and used as the 2016 up-Date.

2017 Safety and Health Topics Styrene Occupational Safety and Health Administration This also agrees that Styrene Does NOT Occur Naturally like the EPA in 1994 and Dutchess County NY in 2017.

FDA

This shows that the FDA has taken over 3 Years to make a decision that was only suppose to take 180 Days according to Title 21 - FOOD AND DRUGS _CHAPTER 9. To eliminate Styrene as a synthetic flavoring substance and adjuvant.

2015 Petition FDA hea15060901a This is the Petition Filled by Several Medical Groups for the FDA to remove 8 Chemicals from the food additive list; one of these chemicals is Styrene.

2016 FDA Styrene 14107 This is the Petition Filled by Styrene Information and Research Center (Styrene Lobby) to remove the chemical Styrene. Could not Highlight.

2018 Advocates Sue FDA to Force Decision on Cancer-Causing Chemicals in Popular Foods Earthjustice

2018 EDF and others take FDA to court to demand action on carcinogenic flavors petition Environmental Defense Fund

2018 Food Additive and Color Additive Petitions Under Review or Held in Abeyance FDA Website That shows this has been Under Review since September 2015.

2018 Food Additive and Color Additive Petitions Under Review or Held in Abeyance FDA Website That shows that there are many other Petitions Held Under Review.

2018-05-02_Flavors_Mandamus This Law Sue was Filed because of non-action on the part of the FDA. It is my guess that because FDA allowed Styrene in our food supply in so many ways the FDA does not Know how to take Styrene out of the Food Supply.

Binder 3 Styrene Food Add 2014 FDA Website This shows 3 Pages of how the FDA allowed Styrene to be put Directly into Food as an Additive.

Binder 4 List of Indirect Styrene Additives Used in Food 2014 This shows 13 Pages how the FDA allowed Styrene to be put Indirectly into Food.

CDC and HHS

2015 CDC Press Release This Press release states that 1 in every 5 Americans has a Disability. How long can Americans or America last if it becomes 1 in 3? In 2018 the CDC states that 1 in every 3 Americans has Pre-diabetes or has Diabetes. This is a Disability!

2018 Strategic Goal 2 HHS.gov

The way some of this is written It is like the U.S. Department of Health & Human Services is putting the Blame on the American People for having multiple chronic conditions at the same time.

The HHS should get their house in order and get after the FDA, CDC, EPA and the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry to work with Medical Research Professionals instead of Lobbyist that are only interested in making money with their product not how it effects the American Public.

Styrene-Industry.

Styrene Information and Research Center or (SIRC) Membership represents approximately 95% of the North American styrene industry this makes them the Styrene Lobby. Their own documentation will show you that SIRC puts their product (Styrene) before the American Public's Health!

2008 26-08 SIRC statement to IRIS This shows that the EPA classification for styrene’s cancer-causing potential should have been finalized in 2010. This meaning the 12th Report on Carcinogens (RoC) which was finalized and released in June 2011.

2010 15-10-moa-briefing-paper This is SIRC's Styrene’s Mode of Action Documentation to underwrite deliberations on styrene with the EPA and other Government Agencies to limit the regulatory actions on Styrene.

2011 03-23-statement-house-petition-on-cups SIRC mislead Congress in this letter by Cherry picking the information they gave to Congress. SIRC did not list the 5 Credible Medical Research Documents Dated from 2000 to 2006 which shows Styrene which is a Solvent is a health concern. There are many Government Agencies like the CDC, ADSTR, EPA and IRIS that also said Styrene was and is a health concern before 2011. Yet, They do not Protect our Children!

2011 06-16-LevyDeclaration1 This is where Michael Levy of SIRC puts the limitations of regulatory actions of Styrene Ahead of the Health of the American People. In this Document he stated " In fact, this is what happened during a similar listing issue in Japan. This is about the 12th Report on Carcinogens (RoC).

2011 08-30-Government-response The government is defending its case on 12th Report on Carcinogens (RoC) against SIRC's allegations.

2011 28-11-Judge-cancels-December-1-hearing The Judge dismiss the case SIRC had against the Government. How much Money Did it Cost the Taxpayers?

2017 Comments-of-the-Styrene-Information-and-Research-Center-on-Risk-Evaluation-Proposed-Rule-under-TSCA-03 Reading this is like a Bully trying to get their own way which is what SIRC is trying to do to the EPA HERE.

2018 SIRC-comments-to-ACGIH_053118-combined (1) SIRC shows here that they oppose the Governments lowering the exposure recommendations from 20ppm to 2ppm (Parts PER Million). Again SIRC is putting Styrene and the Money they make from it ahead of Human Health.

2012 Styrene-Industry-Stewardship This shows that Styrene exposure limits have been lowered several times in the Past. In the 1980's the exposure limits were 100ppm, In the 1990's the exposure limits were cut to 50ppm, In the 2012 the exposure limits were cut to 20ppm and Now the Government wants to cut the exposure limits to 2ppm.

2014 Styrene Value Chain_FINAL_JULY I believe this makes a sufficient Point. If Styrene is Natural Then WHY not use Natural Styrene to Flavor FOOD and WHY is Styrene called a synthetic flavoring substance. This also shows that Styrene is made from ethylbenzene.

T_Expert Science Reviews This is SIRC Cherry Picking again but, now they are trying to convince the American People and People around the world that Styrene is Safe. If Styrene is safe why not list the Credible Medical Research Documents Dated from 2000 to Date which shows Styrene is a health concern especially to Children. Most importantly why did SIRC submit their Petition requesting that the FDA amend Styrene as a additive to no longer provide for the use of a synthetic flavoring substance and adjuvant in food.

In Conclusion:

This shows that SIRC has been aggressively inserting themselves into Government rulings. SIRC has been doing this by only using data that shows Styrene less of a Human Health Concern then what Credible Medical Research Documents show.

SIRC has used Harvard School of Public Health in 2002 but never mentions any of the 2006, 2013 or any other Documents from Harvard School of Public Health that show Styrene is a Health Concern.

Our Government has held the Tobacco Industry accountable and Styrene is only one Chemical in the Tobacco Smoke. Our Government states a person has to be over 18 years of age before they can buy Tobacco products. Yet, Our Government supplies This Harmful Chemical Styrene aimed at our Children in their food and food containers.

Does this make sense to you?

SIRC and the Styrene Industry should be held responsible for the Human Health Epidemics that is caused by Styrene (Polystyrene). Some of the Epidemics directly connected to Styrene are Autism, Diabetes and Depression which cause other Health Concerns that are epidemics them self's.

If our Government can hold the Tobacco Industry accountable to Pay for advertising the Health Risk of Tobacco Products and Pay into Medicaid and Medicare for Health Care.

WHY, can't Our Government hold SIRC and the Styrene Industry accountable to Pay for the Epidemics that are caused by their product the Chemical Styrene?

If our Government made SIRC and the Styrene Industry accountable to Pay into Medicare, Medicaid and other Insurance Institutes or Companies for the Epidemics Styrene Caused. It would bring the COST of Healthcare Down.

Thank you for your time.

Charles Lake

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